Lal Chand Rai


Professor
Ph D (BHU)
Contact Information:
0542-6701110 (O); 0542-2367520 (R); 91-9415225821 (M)
Email :
lcrbhu15@gmail.com ; lcrai@bhu.ac.in
Employee No. 12032

 
Academic Qualifications:
S. No.DegreeInstitutionYear
1.B.Sc.Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi1971
2.M. Sc. BotanyBanaras Hindu University, Varanasi1973
3.Ph.D. BotanyBanaras Hindu University, Varanasi1976
4.Post Doctoral ResearchMassachusetts Institute of Technology, USA1988-89
5.Post Doctoral Research Institute of Biotechnology, Juelich, Germany1996, 98, 99
 
Brief writeup on area of specialization/awards/achievements:
 

The most innovative research contributions of Dr. Rai relate to the area of metal toxicity to algae and center around (i) developing a tool for bio-monitoring toxicity, (ii) pinpointing factors which mitigate toxicity, (iii) unfolding mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance, and (iv) evolving strategies for metal removal. He was the first to demonstrate 14C uptake as the most sensitive criterion for toxicity monitoring in batch culture, synthetic microcosm and CEPEX. Employing morphometry, EDAX, and AAS, Dr. Rai demonstrated cell wall lysis and lipid loss as credible indicators of metal toxicity. He also showed that low doses of metals affected oxidizing side of PSII but high doses affected the reducing side by inhibiting phycobillisomes. For acid tolerant Chlorella metal tolerance was shown to involve production of super active ATPase, influx of anions, repulsion of cations and altered membrane permeability. While studying the abiotic stress proteomics of cyanobacteria using 2DE and MALDI-TOF/MS he demonstrated operation of anoxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria under excess Cu. Rai’s group also showed induction of phytochelatin in diazotrophic cyanobacteria under Cd stress and cloned, over expressed and analysed the pcs gene from Anabaena sp PCC 7120 that offers tolerance to metals, heat, pesticides, salinity, temperature etc. in E. coli. Prof. Rai is also credited with development of a phenol and lysozyme-free method for isolation of genomic DNA from cyanobacterial mats, soil and culture.

 
Contact Informations:
0542-6701110 (O); 0542-2367520 (R); 91-9415225821 (M)
lcraibhu@gmail.com ; lcrai@bhu.ac.in.
 
Current Research Projects:
 
S. No. Name of the Project Duration Source Amount (in Rs)
1. Isolation, purification, identification and molecular assessment of microbial diversity from selected districts of Indo-Gangetic Plane. 2007-2012 ICAR, New Delhi
2.Role of Dps in abiotic stress management in cyanobacteria.2008-2011 DAE/BRNS, Mumbai
3. Molecular analysis of AhpC (alkylhydroperoxide reductase) in offering multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. 2009-2012 DST New Delhi
4. Cloning, expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene in multiple abiotic stress management in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. 2009-2012CSIR New Delhi
5.Funcitonal Genomics and Proteomics of abiotic stress responses in N2-fixing cyanobacteria.2010-2013 Cluster Project DST New Delhi
 
Awards & Recognition:
  1. UGC Career Award, 1988-1991.
  2. Indo-US Fulbright Fellowship 1988-89.
  3. Pitamber Pant National Environment Fellowship 1996-99.
  4. Fellow, National Academy of Sciences India 1995.
  5. E. P Odum Gold Medal Society for Ecological Communications 2009.
  6. Fellow ,Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi (2010).
  7. J C Bose National Fellowship 2010.
  8. C N R Rao Award for excellence in science research (BHU)
  9. S B Saxena Medal Award (INSA)
  10. Prof.R.N. Tandon Memorial Lecture Award (NASI- Allahabad)
 

List of 10 major Publications:

  1. Narayan, O.P., Kumari, N. and Rai, L.C. (2010) Heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a Dps family gene) protects Escherichia coli from nutrient limitation and abiotic stresses. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications 394: 163–169.

  2. Kumari N., Narayan O.P and Rai, L.C. (2009). Understanding butachlor toxicity in Aulosira fertilissima using physiological, biochemical and proteomic approaches. Chemosphere. 77: 1501-1507.

  3. Mishra, Y., Bhargava P., Chaurasia, N. and Rai, L.C. (2009). Proteomic evaluation of non-survival of Anabaena doliolum (Cyanophyta) at elevated temperatures. European Journal of Phycology: 44: 551-565.

  4. Srivastava, A. K., Bhargava, P. Kumar, A., Rai, L.C. and Neilan B.A. (2009). Molecular characterization and the effect of salinity on cyanobacterial diversity in the rice fields of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Saline Systems 5: 4 doi: 10.1186/1746-1448-5-4.

  5. Mishra, Y., Chaurasia, N. and Rai, L.C. (2009) AhpC (alkylhydroperoxide reductase) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 protects Escherichia coli cells from multiple abiotic stresses. Biochmeical Biophysical Research Communications. 381: 606-611.

  6. Mishra Y., Chaurasia, N. and Rai, L.C. (2009). Heat pre-treatment alleviates UV-B toxicity in the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum: a proteomic analysis of cross tolerance. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 85: 824–833

  7. Hudek L., Rai, L.C., Freestone D., Michalczyk, A., Gibson, M. and Ackland, M.L. (2009). Bioinformatic and Expression analyses of genes mediating zinc homeostasis in Nostoc punctiforme. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 75 784-791.

  8. Chaurasia, N.,Mishra, Y. and Rai, L.C. (2008) Cloning, expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in offering multiple stress tolerance in Escherichia coli. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 376:225-230.

  9. Bhargava P., Kumar, A., Mishra, Y. and Rai, L.C. (2008). Copper pretreatment augments ultraviolet B toxicity in the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum: A proteomic analysis of cell death. Functional Plant Biology. 35: 360-372.

  10. Bhargava, P. Mishra, Y, Srivastava, A.K. Narayan O.P. and Rai, L.C. (2008). Excess Copper induces Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Anabaena doliolum: Proteomic Assessment of its survival strategy. Photosynthesis Research. 96: 61-74.

Additional Information/ Achievements:

  1. Authored One Book and Edited 3 books.

  2. U G C Expert for Special Assistance.

  3. UGC expert for COSIST and SAP Programmes.

  4. UGC expert for 10th Plan Visiting Committee.

  5. Member, Ecosystem Research Advisory Committee, M.O.En, New Delhi, 2003-2007.

  6. Member, Environmental Research Committee, M.O.En, New Delhi, 2003-200.

  7. Member, Programme Advisory Committee, Plant Sciences, DST, New Delhi, since 2004.

  8. Visiting Professor Institute of Biotechnology, Juelich Germany, 1996, 1998, 1999.

  9. Visiting Professor University of Wisconsin, USA, 1997.

  10. Visiting Professor Saitama University Japan, 2008, 2009.

 

Full List of Publications:

  1. Narayan, O.P., Kumari, N. and Rai, L.C. (2010) Protemic change under long term Iron starvation in Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. PCC7120: Exploring survival strategy. (communicated).

  2. Kumar A, Bhargava, P. and Rai, L.C. (2010).Molecular characterization of pH, salt and temperature-tolerant phosphate solubilizing bacteria from paddy fields of Eastern U.P. India. African Journal of Microbiology (in press).

  3. Narayan, O.P., Kumari, N. and Rai, L.C. (2010) Heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a Dps family gene) protects Escherichia coli from nutrient limitation and abiotic stresses. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications 394: 163–169.

  4. Kumari N., Narayan O.P and Rai, L.C. (2009). Understanding butachlor toxicity in Aulosira fertilissima using physiological, biochemical and proteomic approaches. Chemosphere. 77: 1501-1507.

  5. Kumari, N., Srivastava, A.K., Bhargava, P., and Rai, L.C. (2009). Molecular approaches towards assessment of cyanobacterial biodiversity. African Journal of Biotechnology 18: 4284-4298.

  6. Mishra, S., Bhargava, P., Mishra, Y. Rai, R., Zotta T., Parente, E. and Rai, L. C. (2009). Protein fingerprinting may serve as a complementary tool for the phylogenetic classification of heterocystous (Nostoc, Anabaena, Cylindrospermum, Aulosira and Tolypothrix) Cyanobacteria. The Internet Journal of Microbiology: 7; 2.

  7. Mishra, Y., Bhargava P., Chaurasia, N. and Rai, L.C. (2009). Proteomic evaluation of non-survival of Anabaena doliolum (Cyanophyta) at elevated temperatures. European Journal of Phycology: 44: 551-565.

  8. Srivastava, A. K., Bhargava, P. Kumar, A., Rai, L.C. and Neilan B.A. (2009). Molecular characterization and the effect of salinity on cyanobacterial diversity in the rice fields of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Saline Systems 5: 4 doi: 10.1186/1746-1448-5-4.

  9. Srivastava, A.K., Bhargava, P., Thaper R., and Rai, L.C. (2009). Differential response of antioxidative defense system of Anabaena doliolum under arsenite and arsenate stress. Journal of Basic Microbiology. 49: 1-10.

  10. . Mishra, Y., Chaurasia, N. and Rai, L.C. (2009) AhpC (alkylhydroperoxide reductase) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 protects Escherichia coli cells from multiple abiotic stresses. Biochmeical Biophysical Research Communications. 381: 606-611.

  11. Mishra Y., Chaurasia, N. and Rai, L.C. (2009). Heat pre-treatment alleviates UV-B toxicity in the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum: a proteomic analysis of cross tolerance. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 85: 824–833.

  12. Hudek L., Rai, L.C., Freestone D., Michalczyk, A., Gibson, M. and Ackland, M.L. (2009). Bioinformatic and Expression analyses of genes mediating zinc homeostasis in Nostoc punctiforme. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 75 784-791.

  13. . Sakthivel, K., Rai, L,.C. and Nakamoto, H. (2008). Role of small heat shock protein and DNA-binding protein from starved cells, Dps, in oxidative stress management. Current Topics in Biochemical Research 10: 79-86.

  14. Chaurasia, N.,Mishra, Y. and Rai, L.C. (2008) Cloning, expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in offering multiple stress tolerance in Escherichia coli. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 376:225-230.

  15. Mishra, Y.,Bhargava, P.,Thapar, R., Srivastava, A.K., and Rai. L. C. (2008). A comparative study of antioxidative defense system in copper and temperature acclimated strains of Anabaena doliolum. World J. Microbiology & Biotechnology:24: 2997-3004.

  16. Bhargava P., Kumar, A., Mishra, Y. and Rai, L.C. (2008). Copper pretreatment augments ultraviolet B toxicity in the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum: A proteomic analysis of cell death. Functional Plant Biology. 35: 360-372.

  17. Srivastava, A.K., Bhargava P., Thapar R. and Rai, L.C. (2008) Salinity-Induced Glycolate Metabolism in Anabaena doliolum: A Physiological and Homology Based Proteomic Study. Environmental Experimental Botany: 64: 49–57.

  18. Bhargava, P. Mishra, Y, Srivastava, A.K. Narayan O.P. and Rai, L.C. (2008). Excess Copper induces Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Anabaena doliolum: Proteomic Assessment of its survival strategy. Photosynthesis Research. 96: 61-74.

  19. Thapar R., Srivastava, A.K., Bhargava, P. and Rai, L.C. (2008). Impact of different abiotic stresses on growth, photosynthetic electron transport chain, nutrient uptake and enzyme activities of Cu-acclimated Anabaena doliolum. Journal of Plant Physiology:165: 306-316.

  20. Srivastava, A.K., Ara, A., Bhargava, P. Mishra, Y., Rai S. P. and Rai L.C. (2007). A rapid and cost-effective method of genomic DNA isolation from cyanobacterial culture, mat and soil suitable for genomic finger printing and community analysis. Journal of Applied Phycology 19: 373-382.

  21. Pradhan, S., Singh, S., Singh, A. K., and Rai, L.C. (2007). Biosorption of heavy metals by field and laboratory-grown Microcystis sp. and its implication in bioremediation of metal degraded habitats. 133-145. In: J.S. Singh, A.K. Bhatnagar, V. P. Singh and B. K. Roy (eds). Plant Diversity and Conservation. Satish Serial Publishing House, New Delhi.

  22. Bhargava P., Atri N., Srivastava, A.K, and Rai L.C (2007). Cadmium mitigates ultraviolet -B stress in Anabaena doliolum: enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Biologia Plantarum 51: 546-550.

  23. Pradhan, S., Singh, S. and Rai, L.C. (2007). Characterisation of various functional groups present in the capsule of Microcystis and study of their role in biosorption of Fe, Ni and Cr. Bioresource Technology 98: 595-601.

  24. Shukla, B. and Rai, L.C. (2007). Potassium-Induced Inhibition of Nitrogen and Phosphorous Metabolism as a strategy for Controlling Microcystis Blooms. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 23: 317-322 .

  25. Bhargava P., Mishra, Y., Srivastava, A.K., Ara, A. and Rai, L.C. (2006). Preliminary analysis of cuprome of Anabaena doliolum using two dimensional gel electrophoresis. Current Science 91: 1520-1523.

  26. Srivastava, A.K, Bhargava, P, Mishra Y., Shukla B. and Rai, L.C. (2006) Effect of pre-treatment of salt, copper and temperature on ultraviolet-B-induced antioxidants in diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 46: 135-144.

  27. Shukla, B. and Rai, L.C. (2006).Potassium-Induced inhibition of Photosynthesis and associated electron transport chain of Microcystis : Implication for controlling cyanobacterial bloom. Harmful Algae 5: 184-191.

  28. Mishra Y., Bhargava, P. and Rai, L.C. (2005). Differential induction of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in Anabaena doliolum exposed to heat stress. Journal of Thermal Biology 30: 524-531.

  29. Raghubanshi A.S., Rai, L.C., Gaur, J.P. and Singh, J.S. (2005). Invasive Alien Species and Biodiversity in India. Current Science 88: 539-540.

  30. Srivastava, A.K., Bhargava, P. and Rai, L.C.( 2005). Salinity and Copper–induced oxidative damage and changes in the antioxidative defence systems of Anabaena doliolum. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 21: 1291-1298.

  31. Bhargava, P., Srivastava, AK., Mishra, Y., and Rai, L.C. ( 2005). Cyanobacteria and Stress Management: A molecular Approach. In Cyanobacterial Biotechnology . Edited by Singh, P.K. 75-91.

  32. Bhargava, P., Srivastava, A.K. Urmil, Snigdha and Rai, L.C. (2005). Phytochelatin plays a role in UV-B tolerance in N2- fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. Journal of Plant Physiology 162:1220-1225.

  33. Awasthi M. and Rai, L.C. (2005) Toxicity of nickel, zinc and cadmium to nitrate uptake in free and immobilized cells of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 61:268-272.

  34. Srivastava, A.K., Bhargava, P., Shukla, B. and Rai, L.C.( 2004). Heavy Metal- Induced Oxidative Stress and its Protection in Cyanobacteria. (eds) H. Prakash, S. Niranjan, and K.R. Kinni. Vistas in Applied Botany: 272-296 .

  35. Awasthi M. and Rai, L.C. (2004) Effect of nickel and cadmium on ammonium uptake kinetics of free and immobilized cells of Ancystis nidulans Acta hydrochem. Hydrobiol. 32:149-153.

  36. Awasthi M. and Rai, L.C. (2004) Adsorption of Nickel, Zinc and Cadmium by Immobilized Green Algae and Cyanobacteria: A Comparative Study. Annals of Microbiology 54: 257-267.

  37. Pradhan S. and Rai, L.C. (2003). Selective bio-sorption of Cu, Zn and Cd from metal mixtures by Microcystis sp and its application in bio-restoration of metal polluted aquatics. 194-207. In: Microbial Biotechnology. Edited by P.C. Trivedi, Aaviskar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur.

  38. Atri, N. and L.C. Rai (2003) Differential responses of three cyanobacteria to UV-B and Cd. Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. 13: 544-551.

  39. Pradhan, S. and Rai, L.C. (2003) Impact of Cu, Zn and Cd on Certain Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Microcystis sp. p 91-114 In: Phycology: Principles, Processes and Applications. Edited by A.S. Ahluwalia, Daya Publishing House, Delhi.

  40. Pandey, V. and L. C. Rai (2002) Interactive effect of UV-B and Pesticides on Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Fixation of Anabaena doliolum. Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 12:423-430.

  41. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (2002) Physiological responses of non-vascular plants to heavy metals.p. 111-147, In: Physiology and Biochemistry of Metal Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants . Prasad, MNV and Strzalka, K., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands .

  42. Pradhan, S. and Rai, L.C. (2001) Copper removal by immobilized Microcystis aeruginosa in continuous flow column at different bed heights: study of adsorption / desorption cycle. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 17: 829-832.

  43. Singh, S., Rai, B.N. and Rai, L.C. (2001). Ni (II) and Cr(VI) sorption kinetics by Microcystis in single and multimetallic system. Process Biochemistry 36:1205-13.

  44. Gaur, J.P. and Rai, L. C. (2001) Heavy metal tolerance in algae in Algal Adaptation to Environmental Stresses : Physiological Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms. Rai, L.C. and Gaur J.P. (eds.) p 363-388 Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.

  45. Rai, L.C. (2001) Cyanobacterial Ecology and Environmental Management in: Recent Advances in the Exploitation of Blue-green algae and Azolla 31-44, ICAR, New Delhi.

  46. Pradhan, S. and Rai, L.C. (2001). Biotechnological potential of Microcystis sp. in Cu, Zn and Cd biosorption from single and multimetallic systems. BioMetals 14: 67-74.

  47. Pradhan, S. and Rai, L.C. (2000). Optimization of flow rate, initial metal concentration, and biomass density for maximum removal of Cu2+ by immobilized Microcystis. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 16: 579-584.

  48. Singh, S., Pradhan, S. and Rai, L.C., (2000). Metal removal from single and multimetallic systems by different biosorbent materials as evaluated by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Process Biochemistry 36: 175-182.

  49. Parker, D. L., Mihalick, J. E., Plude, J.L., Plude, M.J., Clark, T.P., Egan, Lynn, Flom, J.J., Rai, L. C., and Kumar, H.D., (2000). Sorption of metals by extracellular polymers from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa f flos-aquae strain C3-40 . Journal of Applied Phycology 20: 219-224.

  50. Mallick, N., Mohn, F. H., Rai, L. C., and Soeder, C. J. (2000). Impact of physiological stresses on nitric oxide (NO) formation by green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10: 300-306.

  51. Rai, L. C, Kumar, H. D., Mohn, F. H. and Soeder, C. J. (2000) Services of Algae to the Environment. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10: 119-136.

  52. Mallick, N, Mohn, F. H., Rai, L.C. and Soeder, C.J. (2000). Evidence for the non-involvement of nitric oxide synthase in nitric oxide production by green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Journal of Plant Physiology 156: 423- 426.

  53. Mallick, N., Rai, L. C., Mohn, F. H. and Soeder, C. J. (1999) Studies on nitric oxide (NO) formation by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. Chemosphere 39 :1601- 1610.

  54. Mallick, N. and L.C. Rai (1999) Responses of antioxidant system of the nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum to copper. Journal of Plant Physiology 155: 146-149 .

  55. Rai, L.C., Mohn, F.H. Rockel, P., Wildt, J., and Soeder, C. J. (1999). Formation of nitric Oxide (NO) in nitrate-supplied suspensions of green alga Scenedesmus. Algalogical Studies 93: 119-130.

  56. Raizada, J., Rai, P. K. and Rai, L.C. (1999). Phycological perspectives of enhanced solar UV-B radiation. In Tasneem Fatma (ed.) Cyanobacterial and Algal Metabolism and Environmental Biotechnology : 177-195.

  57. Rai, L. C., Husaini, Y. and Mallick, N. (1998). pH altered interaction of aluminium and fluoride on nutrient uptake, photosynthesis and other variables of Chlorella vulgaris. Aquatic Toxicology 42: 67-84.

  58. Rai, L. C.,Tyagi, B., Mallick, N. and Rai, P.K. (1998). Interactive effects of UV B and heavy metals (Cu and Pb) on nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism of the cyanobacteriumAnabaena doliolum.Environmental Experimental Botany39:221-231.

  59. Parker, D. L., Rai, L. C., Mallick, N., Rai, P.K. and Kumar, H. D. (1998). Effect of cellular metabolism and viability on metal ion accumulation by cultured biomass from a bloom of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 64:1545-1547.

  60. Pradhan, S., Singh, S., Rai, L.C. and. Parker, D. L (1998). Evaluation of metal sorption efficiency of laboratory grown Microcystis under various environmental conditions. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 8: 53-60.

  61. Rai, L.C., Singh, S. and Pradhan, S. (1998). Biotechnological potential of naturally occurring and laboratory grown Microcystis in biosorption of Ni 2+ and Cd 2+. Current Science 74; 461-464 .

  62. Rai, L.C. and Mallick, N. (1998). Algal Responses to Enhanced UV B Radiation Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy B 64 : 125-146.

  63. Singh, S., Pradhan, S. and Rai, L.C. (1998).Comparative assessment of Fe 3+ and Cu 2+ bio-sorption by field and laboratory grown Microcystis. Process Biochemistry: 33: 495-504.

  64. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1998). Characterisation of Cd induced low molecular weight protein in a N2 fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum with special reference to Co / Multiple tolerance. Biometals 11: 55-61 .

  65. Rai, P. K., Pradhan S., and Rai, L.C. (1998). Algal Responses to Heavy Metals With Special Reference to Mechanism of Toxicity and Tolerance In: Advances in Phycology (Eds.) B.N. Verma, A. Kargupta & S. K. Goyal 251 280. APC Publications New Delhi.

  66. Rai, P.K. and Rai, L.C. (1997). Interactive effect of UV B and Cu on photosynthesis, uptake and metabolism of nutrients in a green alga Chlorella vulgaris under simulated ozone column. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 43: 281-288.

  67. Parker, D.L., Kumar, H. D., Rai, L.C. and Singh, J.B. (1997). Potassium salts inhibit the growth of the cyanobacterium Microcystis in pond water and defined medium: implications for the control of microcystin producing aquatic blooms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 2324-2329.

  68. Singh, S., Pradahn, S. and Rai, L. C. (1997) Bio-restoration of Metal Damaged Freshwater Ecosystem : Current Status and Future Perspectives In: B. C. Rana (Ed) Damaged Ecosystem Restoration 133 162, World Scientific Publishing Co. Singapore.

  69. Mallick, N., Shardendu, and Rai, L.C. (1996). Removal of heavy metals by two free- floating aquatic macrophytes. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 9: 400 408.

  70. * Rai, L.C., Tyagi, Bipul and Mallick, N. (1996). Alteration in photosynthetic characteristic of Anabaena doliolum following exposure to UV B and Pb. Photochemistry and Photobiology 64:658 663

  71. Husaini, Y., Rai, L.C. and Mallick, N. (1996). Impact of aluminium, fluoride and fluoroaluminate complex on ATPase activity of Nostoc linckia and Chlorella vulgaris. Biometals 9: 277 283.

  72. Husaini, Y., Rai, L.C. and Mallick, N. (1996). Nutrient uptake and its kinetics in Nostoc linckia in presence of aluminium and fluoride at different pH. Journal of General & Applied Microbiology 42: 263 270.

  73. Rai, L.C., Rai, P.K. and Mallick, N. (1996). Regulation of heavy metal toxicity in acid tolerant alga Chlorella: Physiological and Biochemical Approach. Environmental and Experimental Botany 36: 99 109.

  74. Rai, L .C. Husaini, Y. and Mallick, N. (1996). Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Nostoc linckia to combined effects of aluminium, fluoride and acidification. Environmental and Experimental Botany 36: 1 12.

  75. Rai, L. C., Tyagi, B., Mallick, N. and Rai, P.K. (1995). Interactive effects of UV B and Copper on photosynthetic activity of the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum Environmental and Experimental Botany. 35: 177 185.

  76. Rai, L.C., Raizada, M., Singh, A.K. and Singh, J.B. (1994). Heavy metal toxicity in a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium: Interaction with sulphur containing amino acids and reducing substances. In A.K. Kashyap and H.D. Kumar (eds.) Recent Advances in Phycology 1: 265 274.

  77. 70. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1994). Restoring metal damaged Freshwater Ecosystems through algae and aquatic plants. SAIL, Souvenir:135 146.

  78. Mallick, N. Pandey, S. and Rai, L.C.( 1994). Involvement of a Cd-induced low molecular weight protein in regulating cadmium toxicity in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. Biometals 7: 299 304.

  79. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1994). Removal of inorganic ions from waste waters by immobilized microalgae. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.10: 439 443.

  80. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1994). Kinetic Studies of Mineral Uptake and Enzyme activities of Anabaena doliolum under metal stress. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 40: 123 133.

  81. Rai, P. K., Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1994). Effect of Cu and Ni on growth, mineral uptake, photosynthesis and enzyme activities of Chlorella vulgaris at different pH values. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 7: 56 67.

  82. Gaur, J. P. and Rai, L.C. (1994). Introduction In: Advances in Limnology, Vol. 42: 1 29 "Algae and Water Pollution” Rai, L.C., Gaur, J. P. and Soeder, C. J. (eds). E. Schweitzerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

  83. Rai, P.K., Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1994). Effect of Ni on Certain Physiological and Biochemical Processes of an Acid Tolerant Chlorella vulgaris Biometals 7: 193 200.

  84. Rai, P. K., Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C.(1993). Physiological and Biochemical Studies on an Acid Tolerant Chlorella vulgaris under Copper Stress Journal of General & Applied Microbiology 39: 529 540.

  85. Singh, J. B., Prasad, S. M., Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H.D.(1993). Response of the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum to chromium and lead: the effect on phosphorus metabolism Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 39: 559 570.

  86. Rai, L.C. and Mallick, N. (1993). Heavy metal toxicity to algae under synthetic microcosm. Ecotoxicology 2: 231 242

  87. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1993). Influence of culture density, pH, organic acids and bivalent cations on the removal of nutrients and metals by immobilised A. doliolum and C. vulgaris. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 9 : 196 201.

  88. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1992). Metal induced inhibition of photosynthesis, photosynthetic electron transport chain and ATP content of Anabaena doliolum and Chlorella vulgaris: Interaction with exogenous ATP. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 5:241 250.

  89. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1992). Impact of spectral quality on iron toxicity in Anabaena doliolum and Chlorella vulgaris. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 5: 65 75.

  90. Husaini, Y. and Rai, L.C. (1992). pH dependent aluminium toxicity to Nostoc linckia: Studies on phosphate uptake, alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, ATP content, photosynthesis and carbon fixation. Journal of Plant Physiology 139: 703 707.

  91. Rai, L.C. and Mallick, N. (1992). Removal and assessment of toxicity of Cu and Fe to Anabaena doliolum and Chlorella vulgaris using free and immobilised cells. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 8: 110 114.

  92. Rai, L.C., Dubey, S.K. and Mallick, N. (1992). Influence of chromium on some physiological variables of Anabaena doliolum: Interaction with metabolic inhibitors. Biology of Metals 5: 13 16.

  93. * Husaini, Y. and Rai, L.C. (1991). Studies on nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism and photosynthetic electron transport system of Nostoc linckia under cadmium stress. Journal of Plant Physiology 138:429 435.

  94. Singh, J.B., Prasad, S.M. and Rai, L.C. (1991). Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport system and changes in fluorescence emission of phycobilisomes of Nostoc muscorum by Ni and Hg. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 37: 167 174.

  95. Prasad, S. M., Singh, J.B., Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H. D. (1991). Metal induced inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport chain of the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. FEMS Microbiology Letters 82: 95 100.

  96. Husaini, Y., Singh, A.K. and Rai, L.C. (1991). Cadmium toxicity to photosynthesis and associated electron transport system of Nostoc linckia. Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 46: 146 150.

  97. Rai, L.C., Mallick, N., Singh, J.B. and Kumar, H. D. (1991). Physiological and biochemical characteristics of a copper tolerant and a wild type strain of Anabaena doliolum under copper stress. Journal of Plant Physiology 138: 68 74.

  98. Rai, L.C., Singh, A.K. and Mallick, N. (1991). Studies on photosynthesis, associated electron transport system and some physiological variables of Chlorella vulgaris under heavy metal stress. Journal of Plant Physiology 137: 419 424.

  99. * Singh, A.K. and Rai, L.C. (1991). Cr and Hg toxicity assessed in situ using structural and functional characteristics of algal communities. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality 6: 97 107.

  100. Singh, A.K. and Rai, L.C. (1990). Use of in situ structural and functional variables of algae of river Ganga for assessment of Cd and Zn toxicity. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 3: 397 405.

  101. Rai, L.C., Singh, A.K. and Mallick, N. (1990). Employment of CEPEX enclosures for monitoring toxicity of Hg and Zn on in situ structural and functional characteristics of algal communities of river Ganga in Varanasi. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 20: 211 221.

  102. Dubey, S.K. and Rai, L.C. (1990). Toxicity of chromium and tin to Anabaena doliolum : Interaction with bivalent cations. Biology of Metals 3: 8 13.

  103. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1990). Effect of heavy metals on the biology of a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. Toxicity Assessment 5: 207 219.

  104. Rai, L.C. and Dubey, S.K. (1990). Heavy metal toxicity in a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium: Regulation of toxicity by certain environmental factors. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 3: 240 249.

  105. Dwivedi, M.B. and Rai, L.C. (1990). Factors influencing photoproduction of ammonia from dinitrogen by the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Folia Microbiologia 35: 227 235.

  106. Banerjee, M., Rao, R., Kumar, A., Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H. D. (1990). Significance of pigment ratio and nitrogen assimilating enzymes in taxonomic analysis of cyanobacteria. In: Bilgrami, K.S. and Dogra, J.V.V. (eds), Proc. Sympo. Phytochem. Bot. Classification,. 39 46.

  107. Rai, L.C., Raizada, M., Mallick, N., Husaini, H., Singh, A.K. and Dubey, S.K. (1990). Effect of four heavy metals on the biology of Nostoc muscorum. Biology of Metals 2: 229 234.

  108. * Rai, L.C., Jensen, T.E. and Rachlin, J.W. (1990). A morphometric and x ray energy dispersive analysis approach to monitoring pH altered Cd toxicity in Anabaena flos aquae. Archives Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 19: 479 487.

  109. 38. Mallick, N., Singh, A.K. and Rai, L.C. (1990). Impact of bimetallic combinations of Cu, Ni and Fe on growth rate, uptake of nitrate and ammonia, 14CO2 fixation, nitrate reductase and urease activity of Chlorella vulgaris. Biology of Metals 2: 223 228.

  110. Mallick, N. and Rai, L.C. (1989). Response of Anabaena doliolum to bimetallic combinations of Fe, Ni and Cu with special reference to sequential addition. Journal of Applied Phycology 1: 301 306.

  111. Singh, A.K. and Rai, L.C. (1989). Impact of Cr and Cd on certain physiological variables of Chlorella vulgaris isolated from river Ganga. Biojournal 1: 15 24.

  112. Rai, L.C., and Dubey, S.K. (1989). Protective effect of certain natural and synthetic complexans on the toxicity of chromium and tin to a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 2: 271 281.

  113. Dubey, S.K. and Rai, L.C. (1989). Toxicity of chromium and tin to Anabaena doliolum: Interaction with sulphur containing amino acids and thiols. Biology of Metals 2: 55 60.

  114. Rai, L.C. (1989). Silver toxicity to a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium: Interaction with Ni, Cr and Pb. Biology of Metals 2: 122 128.

  115. Rai, L.C. and Dubey, S.K. (1989). Impact of chromium and tin on a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum: Interaction with bivalent cations. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 17: 94 104.

  116. 31. Rai, L.C. and Raizada, M. (1989). Effect of bimetallic combinations of Cr, Ni and Pb on growth, uptake of nitrate and ammonia, 14CO2 fixation and nitrogenase activity of Nostoc muscorum . Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 17: 75 85.

  117. Rai, L.C. and Dubey, S.K. (1988). Chromium toxicity to cyanobacterium: Possible role of carbon sources in toxicity amelioration. Microbios 55: 193 203.

  118. Rai, L.C. and Raizada, M. (1988). Impact of chromium and lead on Nostoc muscorum: Regulation of toxicity by ascorbic acid, glutathione and sulphur containing amino acids. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 15: 195 205.

  119. Rai, L.C. and Raizada, M. (1987). Toxicity of nickel and silver ions to Nostoc muscorum: Interaction with ascorbic acid, glutathione and sulphur containing amino acids. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 14: 12 20.

  120. Dubey, S.K. and Rai, L.C. (1987). Effect of chromium and tin on survival, growth, carbon fixation, heterocyst differentiation, nitrogenase, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities of Anabaena doliolum . Journal of Plant Physiology 130: 165 172.

  121. Rai, L.C., Raiazada, M. and Singh, A.K. (1986). Toxicity of Ni and Ag on Nostoc muscorum. SGVR Symposium, B.H.U., Varanasi, India, pp. 73 84.

  122. Rai, L.C. and Raizada, M. (1986). Nickel induced stimulation of growth, heterocyst differentiation, carbon fixation, and nitrogenase activity of Nostoc muscorum. New Phytologist 104: 111 114.

  123. Dubey, S.K., Rai, L.C. and Raizada, M. (1986). Physiological response of a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum to hexavalent chromium. Acta Botanica Indica 14: 50 54.

  124. Raizada, M. and Rai, L.C. (1985). Metal induced inhibition of growth, heterocyst differentiation, carbon fixation and nitrogenase activity of Nostoc muscorum: Interaction with EDTA and calcium. Microbios Letters 30: 153 161.

  125. * Rai, L.C. and Raizada, M. (1985). Effect of nickel and silver ions on survival, growth, carbon fixation and nitrogenase activity of Nostoc muscorum: Regulation of toxicity by EDTA and calcium. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 31: 326 337.

  126. Raizada, M., Rai, L.C. and Dubey, S.K. (1984). Effect of hexavalent chromium on a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Advances in Biological Research 2: 46 54.

  127. Kumar, D., Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H.D. (1984). Isolation and initial characterisation of shikimic acid resistant mutant of Nostoc linckia. Journal of Plant and Nature 1: 1 8.

  128. Gaur, J.P. and Rai, L.C. (1983). Water pollution phycological perspectives. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 11: 375 389.

  129. Rai, L.C. and Jamir, N.S. (1982). Standing stock, species composition and seasonal succession of natural population of edaphic algae of Mayurbhanj Campus, Shillong, India. Tropical Ecology 23: 218 224.

  130. Rai, L.C., Gaur, J.P. and Kumar, H.D. (1981). Phycology and Heavy Metal Pollution. Biological Reviews (Cambridge) 56: 99 151.

  131. Rai, L.C., Gaur, J.P. and Kumar, H.D. (1981). Protective effects of certain environmental factors on the toxicity of zinc, mercury and methylmercury to Chlorella vulgaris. Environmental Research 25: 250 259.

  132. Rai, L.C. and Muniyandi, K.M. (1981). Algal dynamics in relation to physico chemical factors in a high altitude pond of Shillong, India. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 9: 183 187.

  133. Rai, L.C. (1980). Physico chemical and phycological assessment of certain polluted environs of Varanasi and neighboring areas. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 9: 561 567.

  134. Kumar, H.D., Kumar, A., Rai, L.C., Gaur, J.P. and Ahluwalia, A.S. (1980). Unique position of cyanobacteria in the continuum of life. Proc. Symp. Origin of Life and Intelligence in the Universe. B.A.R.C. Bombay, pp. 99 103.

  135. Rai, L.C. and Kumar, A. (1980). Effect of certain environmental factors on the toxicity of zinc to Chlorella. Microbios Letters 13: 79 84.

  136. Rai, L.C. and Dey, R. (1980). Environmental effects on the toxicity of methylmercuric chloride to Chlorella vulgaris. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 9: 319 328.

  137. Rai, L.C., and Khatoniar, N. (1980). Response of Chlorella to mercury pollution. Indian Journal of Environmental Health. 22: 113 123.

  138. Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H.D. (1980). Algae and the problems of water pollution. In: Bilgrami, K. S. and Vyas, K. M. (eds.) Recent Advances in Biology of Micro-organisms. 1: 127 140.

  139. Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H.D. (1979). Studies on some algae of polluted habitats. In: Bir, S. S. (ed.) Recent Researches in Plant Sciences. pp. 12 18.

  140. Rai, L.C. (1978). Mercuric chloride effect on Chlorella . I. Reversal of toxicity by ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Phykos 18: 105 109.

  141. Rai, L.C. (1978). Ecological studies on algal communities of river Ganga in Varanasi. Indian Journal of Ecology 5: 1 6.

  142. Kumar, H.D. and Rai, L.C. (1978). Zirconium induced precipitation of phosphate as a means of controlling eutrophication. Aquatic Botany 4: 359 366.

  143. Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H.D. (1977). Studies on seasonal variation in the algal communities of a pond receiving the effluent of a fertilizer factory. Indian Journal of Ecology 4: 124 131.

  144. Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H.D. (1976). Algal growth as a means of evaluation of nutrient status of the effluent of a fertiliser factory near Shahupuri, Varanasi. Tropical Ecology 17: 50 57.

  145. Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H.D. (1976). Systematic and ecological studies on algae of some habitats polluted with fertiliser factory effluent near Shahupuri, Varanasi, India. Nova Hedwegia 27: 805 811.

  146. Rai, L.C. and Kumar, H.D. (1976). Nutrient uptake by Chlorella vulgaris and Anacystis nidulans isolated from fertiliser factory effluent. Indian Journal of Ecology 3: 63 7.

 

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