Topography, Soil and Climate
The climate of Vindhyan region is predominantly dry (sub-tropical to dry). Winter season is short (Dec. to Feb.) but summer is long (March to November). The temperature rises up to 48 C or more during summer and drops to 4C during Dec.-Jan. The average annual rainfall of Mirzapur is 1059 mm, of which 90% is received by Southwest monsoon. The normal period of onset of monsoon in this region is third to fourth week of June, which lasts up to end of September. About 90 per cent of the annual rainfall is received during monsoon season, but it is highly erratic and unpredictable, at times causing drought spells of varying degrees and durations. It may be emphasized here that this trend of monsoon rains coupled with existing topo-sequence leads to imbalance between rains received and vegetation water demand.